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Journal Paper
​* Corresponding Author; #Equal Contribution;  Google Scholar Citation

82. M. S. Islam, X. Yu, C. Chase Cao*.  Sustainable Nanocomposites, TBD, in submission, 2024.

81. Z. Huang, B. Li*, C. Chase Cao*.  3D printing modeling, TBD, in submission, 2024.

80. Y. Zhao, W. Zhao, M. Song, M. S. Islam, Z. Liu, X. Liu*, C. Chase Cao*. Self-Adaptive, Untethered Soft Gripper System for Efficient Agricultural Harvesting, TBD, under review, 2024. 

79. Yunmeng Li, Xin Liu, Zewei Ren, Jianjun Luo, Chi Zhang, C. Chase Cao, Hua Yuan*, Yaokun Pang*.  Marine Biomaterial-based Triboelectric Nanogenerators: Insights and Applications, Nano Energy, 119, 109046, 2024. (PDF


78. X. Yue; X. Yin; Z. Sun; L. Liu; Y. Wang; G.-K. Xu,  C. Chase Cao, L. Zhang*. Flexible, lightweight, tunable robotic arms enabled by X-tensegrity inspired structures, Composite Structures, in press, 2024. (PDF)


77. Yu Mei, Preston Fairchild, Vaibhav Srivastava, C. Chase Cao, Xiaobo Tan*. Simultaneous Motion and Stiffness Control for Soft Pneumatic Manipulators based on a Lagrangian-based Dynamic Model, 2023 American Control Conference (ACC), 145-152, 2023. doi: 10.23919/ACC55779.2023.10156049. (PDF)


76. Y. Pang, Z. Huang, Y. Fang, X. Xu, C. Chase Cao*. Toward Self-Powered Integrated Smart Packaging System - Desiccant-based Triboelectric Nanogenerators, Nano Energy, online, 2023. (Invited paper) (PDF) 

Reported by The Daily, Packaging Gateway, FoodProcessingAZO Senzors, Packaging World Insights, Nano Digest, etc.


75. Y. Zhao, H. Huang, W. Yuan, X. Liu*, C. Chase Cao*. Worm-Inspired, Untethered, Soft Crawling Robots for Pipe Inspections, Soft Robotics, in press, 2024.


74. S. Kumar Biswas, M. S. Islam, F. Jia, Y. Cao, Y. Li*, C. Chase Cao*. Flexible Biosensors for Food Pathogen Detection, Advanced Electronics Materials, 2300898, 2024. (Invited Paper) (PDF) 

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73. H. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Fang, X. Zeng,  C. Cao*. Printed, Flexible, Ionic-Liquid-based Hydrogen Sensor via Aerosol Jet Printing of Nanomaterials, IEEE Sensors Letters, 7(6), 2023. (PDFDOI 10.1109/LSENS.2023.3272779


72. Z. Huang, H. Wang, L. Chen, H. Gomezb, B. Li,  C. Cao*. A Meshfree Phase-Field Model for Simulating the Sintering Process of Metallic Particles for Printed Electronics, Engineering with Computers​, online, 2023. (PDF)


71. R. Chen*, X. Tao, C. Cao, P. Jiang, J. Luo, Y. Sun. A Soft, Lightweight Flipping Robot with Versatile Motion Capabilities for Wall-Climbing Applications, IEEE Transactions on Robotics (T-RO), 39(5), 2023. (PDF)


70. Z. Chen, H. Wang, Y. Cao, Y. Chen*, O. Akkus, H. Liu, C. Cao*. Bio-inspired anisotropic hydrogels and their applications in soft actuators and robots, Matter, 2023. (PDF)


69. A. Sobhan, F. Jia, L. C. Kelso, S. K. Biswas, K. Muthukumarappan, C. Cao, L. Wei, Y. Li*. A novel activated biochar-based immunosensor for rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7. Biosensors,  12(10), 908, 2022. (PDF


68. R. Chen*, X. Li, Q. Xiong, X. Zhu, H. Wang, W. Wang, G. Bao, Z. Chen, C. Cao, J. Luo. A Self-healable, Recyclable and Degradable Soft Double-network Structure Material for Soft Robotics, Materials & Designs, 111783, 227, 2023. (PDF) DOI:10.1016/j.matdes.2023.111783


67. Y. Pang, Y. Fang, J. Su, H. Wang, Y. Tan, C. Cao*. Soft Ball-based Triboelectric-electromagnetic Hybrid Nanogenerators for Wave Energy Harvesting, Advanced Materials Technologies, 202201246, 2022. (PDF


66. Y. Pang, S. Chen, Y. Cao, Z. Huang, X. Xu, Y. Fang, C. Cao*. Self-powered multifunctional human-machine interfaces for respiratory monitoring and smart system control, Advanced Materials Interfaces, 202201202, 2022. (PDF) DOI:10.1002/admi.202201202 Reported by The Daily, NewsWise, ilmiwap, TheBlog101NanowerkTech Xplore, News8Plus, DailyInFormatAZO Materials,  Flipboard,  etc.


65. Y. Zhao, H. Huang, X. Liu,* C. Cao*. Multifunctional Hybrid Actuators for Soft Robotic Hands and Walking Robots, IEEE -RAL, under review, 2023.

64. W. Yu, X. Li, D. Chen, J. Liu, J. Su, J. Liu, C. Cao, H. Yuan*. A Minimally-designed Soft Crawling Robot for Robust Locomotion in Unstructured Pipes, Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 17, 056001, 2022. (PDF)


63. Z. Yu*, Y. Guo, J. Su, Q. Huang, T. Fukuda, Q. Shi, C. Cao*. Bioinspired, Multifunctional, Active Whisker Sensors for Tactile Sensing of Mobile Robots, IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, online, 2022. doi: 10.1109/LRA.2022.3191172

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62. X. Li, W. Yu, M. Baghaee, C. Cao, D. Chen, J. Liu, H. Yuan*. Geometrically Exact Finite Element Formulation for Tendon-driven Continuum Robots. Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica, online, 2022. (PDF)

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61. Y. Pang, X. Xu, S. Chen, Y. Fang, X. Shi, Y. Deng, Z.-L. Wang, C. Cao*. Skin-Inspired Textile-Based Tactile Sensors Enable Multifunctional Sensing of Wearables and Soft Robots. Nano Energy,  96, 107137, 2022. (


60. B. Tian, Y. Fang, J. Liang, K. Zheng, P. Guo, X. Zhang, Y. Wu, Y. Zeng, Z. Huang, C. Cao*, W. Wu*. Fully printed multifunctional and stretchable E-textiles for aesthetic wearable electronic systems. Small, 2107298, 2022. (PDF)  DOI: 10.1002/smll.202107298. Reported by The Daily, NanowerkTech Xplore, AZO Materials,  Flipboard,  etc.


59. X. Xu, Q. Wu, Y. Pang, Y. Cao, Y. Fang, G. Huang*, C. Cao*. Multifunctional Metamaterials for Energy Harvesting and Vibration Control. Advanced Functional Materials, 2107896, 2021. (PDFDOI: 10.1002/adfm.202107896


58. L. Li, J. Zhang, X. Wang, L. Huang, J. Zhang, C. Redshaw, X. Feng*, C. Cao*, N. Huo, J. Li, B. Z. Tang*. Stimuli-responsive Materials from Ferrocene-based Organic Small Molecule for Wearable Sensors. Small, 2103125, 2021. (PDF) DOI: 10.1002/smll.202103125.


57. X. Wang, L. Wang, X. Mao, Q. Wang, Z. Mu, L. An, W. Zhang, X. Feng*, C. Redshaw, C. Cao, A. Qin, B. Tang*. Pyrene-based Aggregation-induced Emission Luminogens (AIEgens) with Less Color Migration for Anti-counterfeiting Applications. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 9(37), 12828, 2021. (PDFDOI: 10.1039/D1TC03022A.

56. X. Liu, M. Song, Y. Fang, Y. Zhao* and C. Cao*. Worm-inspired Soft Robots Enable Adaptive Pipeline and Tunnel Inspection. Advanced Intelligent Systems, 2100128, 2021. (PDF) DOI: 10.1002/aisy.202100128. (Invited paper)


55. Y. Zhou, C. B. Parker, P. Joshi, A. K. Naskar, J. T. Glass, C. Cao*. 4D Printing of Stretchable Supercapacitors via Hybrid Composite Materials. Advanced Materials Technologies, 202001055, 2020. (PDF) DOI: 10.1002/admt.202001055. Reported by MSU Today, Yahoo News, Advanced Science News, EurekAlert,, ScienceDaily, ENN, NanowerkAZO Sensors, IDTechEx, SunriseTechno, etc.


54. Y. Pang, Y. Cao, M. Derakhshani, Y. Fang, Z.L. Wang, C. Cao*. Hybrid Energy Harvesting Systems Based on Triboelectric Nanogenerators. Matter,  4(1), 116-143, 2021. (PDF) DOI: 10.1002/adfm.202106231


53. S. Chen, Y. Pang, Y. Cao, X. Tan, C. Cao*.  Soft Robotic Manipulation System Capable of Stiffness Variation and Dexterous Operation for Safe Human-Machine Interactions. Advanced Materials Technologies, 2100084, 2021. (PDF

Featured as the inside cover of the issue.


52. Y. Cao, M. Derakhshani, Y. Fang, G. Huang, C. Cao*. Bistable Structures for Advanced Functional Systems. Advanced Functional Materials, 2106231, 2021. (PDF) DOI: 10.1002/adfm.202106231


51. H. Yin#, Y. Cao#, B. Marelli, X. Zeng, A. Mason, C. Cao*. Soil Sensors and Plant Wearables for Smart and Precision Agriculture. Advanced Materials, 2007764, 2020. (PDF) DOI:10.1002/adma.202007764. Featured as the Frontispiece of the issue.

50. Y. Pang, S. Chen, J. An, K. Wang, Y. Deng, A. Benard, N. Lajnef, C. Cao*. Multilayered Cylindrical Triboelectric Nanogenerators to Harvest Kinetic Energy of Tree Branches for Monitoring Environment Condition and Forest Firesystem. Advanced Functional Materials, 2003598, 2020. (PDFFeatured as the Frontispiece of the issue; Reported by Science, MSU Today, Yahoo News, Advanced Science News, EurekAlert,, ScienceDaily, ENN, NanowerkAZO Sensors, IDTechEx, SunriseTechno, etc.


49. Zhiqiang Yu#, Haojun Wang#, Wei Shen, Changyong Cao, Qing Shi, Qiang Huang, Toshio Fukuda, Tim Hogan*, Lixin Dong*. Ultimate Enhancement: Sandwiched Nanoarray-MoS2-Nanoarray Plasmonic Photodetectors. TBD,  under review, 2020.


48. X. Liu, Y. Zhao, S. Chen, X. Tan, C. Cao*. Soft Humanoid Hands with Large Grasping Force Enabled by Flexible Hybrid Pneumatic Actuators, Soft Robotics, in press, 2020. (PDFFeatured as the Cover of Soft Robotics; Reported by MSU Today, RoboticReport, Nanowerk,, ScienceDailyEurekAlert, New Atlas, etc.

47. S. Chen#, Y. Pang#, H. Yuan, X. Tan, C. Cao*. Smart Soft Actuators and Grippers Enabled by Self-Powered Tribo-Skins. Advanced Materials Technologies, 1901075, 2020. (PDF)  Reported by USDA News, Nanowerk, CaiLiaoRen, etc.  


46. Y. Zhou, C. Cao*, Y. Cao, Q. Han, C. Parker, J. T. Glass*. Robust and High-Performance Electrodes Made by Crumpled Au-CNT Forests for Stretchable Supercapacitors, Matter, 2, 1–17, 2020. (PDF) Reported by Nature Briefing, ScienceDaily,, USDA-NIFA News, NanowerkNews Break, Duke Research, United Press International, ID TechEx (Wearable Technology Insights), CaiLiaoNiu, Frontiers of Polymer Science, etc.


45. L. Wang*, Z. Wu, C. Cao*. Technologies and fabrication of intelligent packaging for perishable products. Applied Science, 9, 4858, 2019. (PDF) doi:10.3390/app9224858 


44. K. Zeng, J. Gu, C. Cao*. A Facile Approach for Eco-friendly, Low-cost and Water-resistant Paper Coatings. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 12 (16), 18987, 2020. (PDF


43. Y. Pang, S. Chen, Y. Chu, Z. L. Wang, C. Cao*. Matryoshka-inspired Hierarchically Structured Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Wave Energy Harvesting, Nano Energy,  66, 104131, 2019. (PDFReported by Science Daily, Nanowerk, CaiLiaoRen, etc.  Selected as the Front Cover of the issue of the journal.  


42. Y. Liu, S. Chen, X. Tan, C. Cao*. A Finite Element Framework for Magneto-Actuated Large Deformation and Instability of Slender Magneto-Active Elastomers, International Journal of Applied Mechanics, 12, 1, 2020. (PDF


41. Y. Pang, Y. Cao, Y. Chu, M. Liu, K. Snyder, D. MacKenzie, C. Cao*. Additive Manufacturing of Batteries, Advanced Functional Materials. 1906244, 2019. (PDF


40. L. Li, Q. Yun, Z. Li, Y. Liu, C. Cao*.  A new contact model of joint surfaces accounting for surface waviness and substrate deformation, International Journal of Applied Mechanics, in press, 2019. (PDF


39. O. Nabinejad, Y. H. Liew, D. Sujan, M. E. Rahman, C. Cao, Ian J. Davies. Tribological Behavior of Unsaturated Polyester Hybrid Composites Containing Wood Flour and Carbon Nanotubes, SN Applied Sciences, 1:777, 2019. (PDF)

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38. L. Li*, Q. Yun, H. Tian, A. Cai, C. Cao. Investigation into the contact characteristics of rough surfaces with surface tension. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 41:343, 2019. (PDF)


37. M. M. Roozbahani, M. M. Zand*, M. M. Mashhadi, M. D. Banadaki, S. J. Ghalekohneh, C. Cao*. Dynamic pull-in instability and snap-through buckling of curved microbeams under combined squeeze film damping, mechanical shock and axial force. Smart Materials and Structures, 28, 097001, 2019. (PDF)

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36. Y. Liu, Y. Cao, X.-Q. Feng, C. Cao*. Phase Transition and Optimal Actuation of Active Bilayer Structures, Extreme Mechanics Letters, 29, 100467, 2019. (PDF)  

35. S. Chen, Y. Cao, M. Sarparast, H. Yuan, L. Dong, X. Tan, C. Cao*.  Soft Crawling Robots: Design, Actuation and Locomotion, Advanced Materials Technologies, 1900837, 2019. (PDF)


34. Y. Zhao, X. Liu*, Y. Fang, C. Cao*. Ultra-Precision Processing of Conductive Materials via Electrorheological Fluid-Assisted Polishing. Advanced Engineering Materials, 202001109, 2020.  (PDF

33. Y. Zhou, K. Maleski, B. Anasori, J. Thostenson, Y. Pang, Y. Feng, C. Parker, S. Zauscher, Y. Gogotsi, J. Glass*, C. Cao*. Ti3C2Tx MXene-Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Electrodes for Stretchable Supercapacitors, ACS Nano, XXXX, XXX, XXX−XXX, 2020. (PDF)  Reported by CailiaoRen, Nanowerk, Research & Learning etc.

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32. C. Cao*, Y. Zhou, S. Ubnoske, J. Zang, Y. Cao, P. Henry, C. Parker, J. T. Glass*. Highly Stretchable Supercapacitors via Crumpled Vertically Aligned Canbon Nanotube-Forests, Advanced Energy Materials, 1900618, 2019.  (PDF)  Reported by MSUTodayScience Daily, NanoWerkTechxplore, EurekAlert, Agenparl, PioneeringMindsMakeMeFeed,  AZONano, EINnewsMedgadget, 能源学人.  

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31. Y. Chu, C. Qian, P. Chahal, C. Cao*. Printed Diodes: Materials Processing, Fabrication and Applications, Advanced Science, 1801653, 2018. (PDF)


30. K. Dastani, M. Zand, A. Hadi, C. Cao*. Revealing electrical stresses acting on the surface of protoplast cells under electric field, European Journal of Mechanics /B Fluids, 76, 292–302, 2019. (PDF

29. C. Cao*, Y.Chu, Y. Zhou, C. Zhang, S. Qu. Recent Advances in Stretchable Supercapacitors Enabled by Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials, Small, 1803976, 2018. (PDF)


28. X. Zeng, S. Xu, C. Cao, J. Wang, C. Qian*. Wireless Amplified NMR Detector (WAND) for Improved Visibility of Image Contrast in Heterogeneous Lesions, NMR in Biomedicine, e3963, 2018. (PDF)


27. Y. Cao, Y. Feng, M. D. Ryser, K. Zhu, G. Herschlag, C. Cao, K. Marusak, S. Zauscher, L. You*. Programmed assembly of pressure sensors using pattern-forming bacteria, Nature Biotechnology, 35, 1087–1093, 2017. (PDFReported by Science Daily, Duke Pratt News, Topix, EurekAlert, Science Newsline, Kurzwei, Technovelgy, AdvancedManufacturing, Medgadget, TheRegister.

26. Q. Han, Y. Bai, J. Liu, K. Du, D. Ji, Y. Zhou, C. Cao, D. Shin, T. Li, X. Huang, A. Franklin, J. T. Glass, J. Hu, M. Therien, J. Liu* and D. B. Mitzi*. Additive Engineering for High-Performance Room-Temperature-Processed Perovskite Absorbers with Micron-Size Grains and Microsecond-Range Carrier Lifetimes, Energy & Environmental Science, 10, 2365-2371, 2017. (PDF) Selected as 2017 Energy and Environmental Science HOT articles.

25. Changyong Cao*, Joseph Andrews, Aaron Franklin. Completely Printed, Flexible, Stable and Hysteresis-free Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Transistors via Aerosol Jet Printing, Advanced Electronic Materials, 3 (5), 1700057, 2017. (PDF)

24. Matthew Catenacci, Patrick Flowers, Changyong Cao, Joseph Andrews, Aaron Franklin, Benjamin Wiley*. Fully printed memristors from Cu-SiO2core-shell nanowire composites, Journal of Electronics Materials, 46 (7), 4596-4603, 2017. (PDFReported by ScienceDaily, Duke Research, Atma 360, Eastday, PEOL

23. Changyong Cao, Joseph Andrews, Abhinay Kumar, Aaron Franklin*. Improving Contact Interfaces in Fully Printed Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Transistors, ACS Nano, 10 (5), 5221–5229, 2016. (PDF)

22. Joseph Andrews, Changyong Cao, Martin A. Brooke, Aaron D. Franklin. Noninvasive materials thickness sensors enhanced through aerosol jet printed metallic carbon nanotube ink, IEEE Sensors, 17, 4612-4618, 2017. (PDFReported by ScienceDaily,, Science NewslineDuke Pratt NewsEngineering 360Droidress

21. Phani Shivapooja#, Changyong Cao# (#Equal Contribution), Beatriz Orihuela, Vrad Levering, Xuanhe Zhao, Daniel Rittschof and Gabriel P. Lopez*. Incorporation of silicone-oil into elastomers enhances barnacle detachment by active surface strain, Biofouling, 33(9), 1017-1028, 2016. (PDF)

20. Zhuojia Fu*, Qiang Xi, Leevan Ling, Changyong Cao. Numerical investigation on the effect of tumor on the thermal behavior insidethe skin tissue, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 108, 1154–1163, 2017. (PDF)

19. Changyong Cao, Yaying Feng, Jianfeng Zang, Gabriel P. Lopez and Xuanhe Zhao*. Tunable lotus-leaf and rose-petal effects via graphene paper origami, Extreme Mechanics Letters, (4), 18–25, 2015. (PDFSupporting Information.

18. Vrad Levering#, Changyong Cao# (#Equal Contribution),  Howard Levinson, Xuanhe Zhao*, Gabriel P. Lopez*.  Urinary catheter capable of repeated on-demand removal ofinfectious biofilms via active deformation, Biomaterials, 77:77-86, 2016. (PDF) Supporting Information, Video 1, Video 2, Video 3.

17. Xiao-Yu Sun, Heng Hu, Changyong Cao and Yuan-Jie Xu*.  Anisotropic vacancy-defect-induced fracture strength loss of graphene, RSC Advances, 2015, 5, 13623-13627. (PDF)

16. Jianfeng Zang#, Changyong Cao# (#Equal Contribution), Yaying Feng#, Jie Liu, Xuanhe Zhao*.  Stretchable and High-Performance Supercapacitors via Crumpled Graphene-Paper, Scientific Reports, 4, 6492, 2014. (PDF) Supporting Information. Reported by MIT news, Science Daily, Health Tech Insider, Nano Werk, PHYS ORG.

15. Shaoting Lin, Changyong Cao, Qiming Wang, Mark Gonzalez, John E. Dolbow, Xuanhe Zhao*. Design Stiff, Tough and Stretchy Hydrogels via Nanoscale Hybrid Crosslinking and Macroscale Fiber Reinforcement, Soft Matter, 10, 7519-7527, 2014. Supporting Information, Video 1. Most read articles of Soft Matter in July and August 2014.

14. Changyong Cao, Honfai Chan, Jianfeng Zang, Kam W. Leong and Xuanhe Zhao*. Harnessing localized ridges for high-aspect-ratio hierarchical patterns with dynamic tunability and multifunctionality, Advanced Materials, 26, 1633, 2014. Supporting Information,Video 1. Featured as Front Cover, reported by Duke Research, Inside Science, The News & Observer. (PDF)

13. Changyong Cao*, Xiaoyu Sun, Yuhui Fang, Qinghua Qin, Aibing Yu and Xi-Qiao Feng. Theoretical model and design of electroadhesive pad with interdigitated electrodes, Materials and Design, 89:485–491, 2015. (PDF)

12. Changyong Cao, Xuanhe Zhao.  Tunable stiffness of electrorheological elastomers by designing mesostructures, Applied Physics Letter, 103, 041901, 2013. (

11. Changyong Cao, Aibing Yu, Qinghua Qin. A new efficient hybrid finite element approach for plane piezoelectricity with defects, Acta Mechanica, 224:41-61, 2013. DOI:10.1007/s00707-012-0741-x.

10. Shoue Chen, S. Brahmab, J. Mackayc, Changyong Cao, B. Aliakbarian*. The Role of Smart Packaging System in Food Supply Chain, Journal of Food Science, 85 (3), 517-525, 2020.  

9. Changyong Cao, Qinghua Qin*, Aibing Yu.  Micromechanical analysis of heterogeneous composites by HT-FEM and HFS-FEM, Journal of Mechanics, 29(4):661-674, 2013.

8. Changyong Cao, Qinghua Qin*. Hybrid Fundamental Solution Based Finite Element Method: Theory and Applications, Advances in Mathematical Physics, 38:916029, 2015.

7. Changyong Cao, Aibing Yu, Qinghua Qin*. A novel hybrid approach for modeling anisotropic composites, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 64:36-47, 2013.

6. Changyong Cao, Qinghua Qin*, Aibing Yu. New hybrid finite element approach for three-dimensional elastic problems, Archive of Mechanics, 64(3):261-292, 2012.

5. Changyong Cao, Qinghua Qin*, Aibing Yu. A novel Boundary-Integral based finite element method for 2D and 3D thermo-elasticity problems, Journal of Thermal Stresses, 35:849-876, 2012.

4. Changyong Cao, Qinghua Qin*, Aibing Yu. Hybrid Fundamental-Solution-based FEM for Piezoelectric Materials, Computational Mechanics, 50(4): 397-412, 2012.

3. Changyong Cao, Aibing Yu, Qinghua Qin*. Evaluation of effective thermal conductivity of fiber-reinforced composites, International Journal of Architecture, Engineering and Construction, 1(1):14-29, 2012.

2. Changyong Cao*, Y. Zhong. Dynamic response of a beam on Pasternak foundation under a moving load, Journal of Chongqing University, 7(4):311-316, 2008.

1. Y. Zhong*, Changyong Cao. Dynamic response of airport pavement when airplane takes off or lands, Journal of dynamics and control, 6(1):28-35, 2008.

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